Hi guys, here I give you a little bit of knowledge. Happy reading yes … hopefully help
- Contemporary music
Contemporary music is an Indonesian term for the field of creative activities which in the English context is most often called new music, contemporary music, or, more precisely, contemporary art music. This became the most popular term in the 1990s. But the agreement in the use of this term raises questions about what is included and what is not included in contemporary music. This becomes a core of heated debate among musicians and thinkers who usually have different perceptions.
Diversity Contemporary music is officially recognized and institutionalized and in this case is defined as a larger movement, namely Composite Week, an annual meeting for composers from various regions in Indonesia.This meeting is usually held in Taman Ismail Marzuki Jakarta. From the first meeting in 1979, the composers involved mostly came from traditional ones. In fact, traditional based composers were the best representing the initial eight iterations, which contributed more than three times more than those works compared to their Western-oriented counterparts.
- Contemporary Modern Era
The history of classical music finally arrived in this century. Music in the contemporary modern era is marked by the emergence of several songwriters who reject the values of the previous era such as tonalty traditional, the selection of musical instruments, melodies and structures. They justry focused more on the development and extension of music theories and techniques. For example classical music of the 20th century (1999 – 2000) which consisted of various combinations of Post Romantic as a whole, including Post Modern and Romantic Modern which also mingled in it. Hopefully the history information of world classical music above can add to your insight about classical music and its streams.
- CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY FLOWS
Some of the schools in contemporary philosophy are as follows:
Existence comes from the word ex which means going out and sister means standing or placing, so that existence can be broadly interpreted as standing by coming out of yourself. Existentialism philosophy is not the same as existence but there is an agreement between the two that is the same as placing human form as the main theme.
In general, existentialism is a school of philosophy that was born due to dissatisfaction of some philosophers who saw philosophy in the Greek to modern times, such as protest against Greek rationalism, especially speculative views about humans. The point is the refusal to follow a flow, the rejection of the ability of a collection of beliefs, especially the ability of the system, the feeling of dissatisfaction with traditional philosophy that is superficial, academic and far from life, as well as rebellion against an impersonal nature that sees humans shackled by technological activities that make humans lose the essence of their lives as human beings who exist.
Existentialism is a school of philosophy that emphasizes on humans who are responsible for their free will without thinking deeply about what is right and what is not true. In fact, it is not not knowing which is right and what is not true, but an existentialist is aware that truth is relative, and therefore each individual is free to determine what he thinks is right. Humans are also seen as a being who must exist, studying the way humans are in the world with consciousness. So it can be said that the center of existentialism reflection is concrete human.
There are several characteristics of existentialism, namely, always seeing the way humans are, existence is interpreted dynamically so that there is an element of doing and becoming, humans are seen as an open and unfinished reality, and based on concrete experience.
So it can be concluded that existentialism views humans as a high, and its existence is always determined by itself, because only humans can exist, who are aware of themselves and know how to place themselves. The other sciences related to existentialism are human-related sciences such as sociology (relating to humans and their existence in the social environment), anthropology (relating to humans and cultural environments). Existentialism questions human existence, and that existence is presented through freedom.
However, being an existentialist does not always have to be someone other than others, realizing that the existence of the world is something that is beyond human control, but not making something unique or new which is the essence of existentialism. Making a choice based on one’s own will, and being aware of its responsibilities in the future is the essence of existentialism.
- Existentialism figures:
1) Soren Aabye Kiekeegaard
The core idea of this character is that human existence is not something static but always becomes, humans always move from possibility to reality, from ideals to reality today. So emphasized there must be courage from humans to realize what he aspires to or what he considers possible.
2) Friedrich Nietzsche
According to him, the human being is a human being who has the desire to power (will to power), and for human power must be a super human (uebermensh) who has mentally employed non-mental slave. And this ability can only be achieved with suffering because by suffering people will think more active and will find themselves.
3) Karl Jaspers
Viewing philosophy aims at returning people to themselves. Its existentialism is characterized by thoughts that use and overcome all objective knowledge, so that humans are aware of themselves.
4) Martin Heidegger
The essence of the thought is the existence of human beings among other existence, everything beyond man is always associated with man himself, and things that exist outside human beings, only have meaning when associated with humans because things that are outside are always used by human beings on each of their actions and goals.
5) Jean Paul Sartre
Emphasizing human freedom, humans after being created have the freedom to determine and regulate themselves. The concept of human existence is a creature that lives and is consciously and freely for itself.
Edmun Husserl (1859-1938) became a pioneer of phenomenological philosophy. He was a philosopher and mathematician regarding intentionalism or direction giving birth to a phenomenological philosophy based on Brentano’s thinking. He always tries to approach reality not through general arguments, concepts or theories.”Zuruck zu den sachen selbst” – returning to the objects themselves is at the core of the approach used to describe reality according to what it is. Every object has its nature, and that nature speaks to us if we open ourselves to the symptoms we receive. If we “take a distance” from the object releasing the object from other views, and we observe the symptoms, the object speaks for itself about its nature, and we understand it thanks to intuition within us.
Phenomenon or phenomenon has various meanings, namely: false symptoms or opponents of their own objects (appearance). According to followers of phenomenology, an unnecessary phenomenon must be observed with the senses, because phenomena can also be seen spiritually, without passing through the senses. For a while it can be said, that according to the followers of phenomenological philosophy, the phenomenon is “what manifests itself in itself,” what appears as it really is, what is clear in front of us.
Literally phenomenology or phenomenalism is the school of thought which considers that phenomenalism (symptom) is the source of knowledge and truth. Phenomenalism moves in a definite field. The thing that shows itself is depicted without leaving the field of direct evidence. Phenomenalism is a method of thinking, “a way of looking at things”. Phenomenalism is in addition to Brentano’s opinion that the subject and object become dialectically one. There can’t be anything to see. The essence of phenomenalism is the thesis of “intentionalism” which is what is called the constitution.
Phenomenology Philosophy strives to achieve true understanding which is called to achieve the “essence of things”. To achieve the essence of things through reduction.
Certain experts interpret phenomenology as a method of observing, understanding, interpreting, and interpreting something as an establishment or a stream of philosophy.
In the sense of a method, Kant and Husserl, say that what is observed is only a phenomenon, not the source of the phenomenon itself. Thus, something that is observed has things that make the observation impure. Three things that need to be set aside from business want pure truth, namely:
- Free yourself from elements or subjective elements,
- Free yourself from the confines of theory, and hypotheses, as well
- Free yourself from traditional doctrines.
After experiencing the first reduction of the first level, namely the reduction of phenomenology or epochal reduction, the phenomenon faced becomes a pure phenomenon, but has not yet achieved the fundamental or true meaning. Therefore, a second reduction is needed, called eiditis reduction. Through the second reduction, the phenomena we face are able to reach the core or essence. Both of these reductions are absolute. In addition to these two reductions there is a third and subsequent reduction in order to get pure observation, not contaminated by any element, and in the quest for the highest truth.
Other phenomenological figures are, Max Scheller (1874-1928), Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961).
Pragmatism comes from the word pragma which means use. Pragma comes from Greek. So Pragmatism is a school that teaches that what is right is anything that proves itself to be right with practical consequences. For example, various personal experiences about mystical truth, provided that it can bring practicality and usefulness.That is, everything is acceptable as long as it is beneficial to life. This flow is willing to accept everything, provided that it has practical consequences. Personal experiences, mystical truths can all be accepted as truth and the basis for action as long as they bring useful practical results. Thus, the standard of pragmatism is “benefit for practical life”
William James (1842-1910 AD), argued, that there is no absolute truth, which is generally accepted, which is permanent, which stands alone, apart from reason knowing. Because our experience continues, and everything we think is right in the development of that experience is constantly changing, because in practice what is right can be corrected by the next experience. According to him, the definition or decision is correct, if it can be used in practice.A decision that cannot be used is wrong.
John Dewey (1859-1952 AD), stated that, humans are moving in ever-changing chaos. If he is facing difficulties, then he starts thinking about overcoming the difficulties. So, thinking is nothing but a tool for acting.Understanding is born from experience. His view of philosophy is very clear that philosophy has a global influence on actions in life in real terms. Philosophy must focus on experience, inquiry, and actively and critically experience the process.
- Socialism-Communism (Marxism)
The Marxist theory was presented by Karl Marx (1818-1883). The basic idea of this theory is the opposition to the class hierarchy system, because it is the most important cause of social problems and it must be terminated by the proletarian revolution (labor). In other words, it can be explained that Marx tried to find the equality, ie equality between the bourgeoisie (upper class economy) and the workers (low class economy). Marx has assumed that workers or laborers have been oppressed by the elite, so it is necessary to make a drastic evolution.
Marx’s thinking about socialist ideas, the struggle of the lower class, was mainly due to his being born in the midst of capitalist-based industrial growth. Companies that employ workers with very long working hours every day, which are patent and with very low wages. The minimum wages earned by the workers, even just enough to pay for a meal a day. Marx saw that the social class created based on the working relationship that was built between the owners of capital and labor was very contrary to the principle of justice. The lowest social class consisting of groups of workers and slaves, often termed the ploretar. The existence of a social class that creates an imbalanced relationship leads to extreme thinking, the elimination of social classes.
Modern philosophy has been considered more perfect in terms of its thinking, but in fact there is still a lack of it so that new thinking emerges in the principle of thought called Contemporary Philosophy.
There are two shortcomings of modern philosophical thinking: first, feel that the assessment of what is classified as wisdom is based on feelings and desires or desires rather than knowledge. Second, the assessment is based on intuition that is difficult to maintain with logical argumentation.
- Development of Contemporary Music in Indonesia
In Indonesia, the development of contemporary music has only begun to be felt since the 1979 Youth Composers Week was held at Taman Ismail Marzuki Jakarta. Through this event the communication of artists between regions with various cultural backgrounds was more intertwined. Discussion forums and dialogues between artists in the event contribute to each other so that the creative paradigm of music becomes wider. To this day the composers who had been involved in the program became individual figures who greatly influenced the composers of contemporary music. Names such as Rahayu Supanggah, Al Suwardi, Komang Astita, Harry Roesli, Nano Suratno, Sutanto, Ben Pasaribu, Trisutji Kamal, Tony Prabowo, Yusbar Jailani, Dody Satya Ekagustdiman, Nyoman Windha, Otto Sidharta and many others have not been mentioned, are contemporary composers whose characteristics are difficult to categorize conventionally. Their works in addition to having their own uniqueness, are also quite varied so that from time to time their musical concepts can change depending on the spirit and capacity of each in developing their creativity. At its peak, contemporary music works no longer explain the background characteristics of its cultural traditions even though the traditional sources still feel closely. However, individual attitudes and thoughts are the most important, as a foundation in the process of contemporary music creativity.These attitudes and thoughts are reflected as stated by contemporary composers I Sadra, among others:
“Now it is no longer the time to make generalizations that the musical aspirations of the people are one, in other words it does not have culture which is concluded in general, but personal property of people per person” (Sadra, 2003).
Observing the development of contemporary music in the Sundanese area seems rather slow. In addition to the appreciation of the Sundanese people is not so adequate, the composers are relatively very few, as well as local government support or other sponsors to organize contemporary music concerts are lacking. In Yogyakarta, for example, they have been successful for dozens of years at the international level of the Yogyakarta Gamelan Festival, where a large number of contemporary music works are performed. The city of Solo in 2007 and 2008 held the SIEM (Solo International Ethnic Music) event. Many contemporary music works were staged at the event with an audience of around 50,000 people. “World Music” Festival with the name “Black White” in Riau, Gong Kebyar Festival in Bali and others. These events are routinely carried out not just “rituals” or have a goal to break the Muri record, let alone seek profit, because contemporary music performances, as Harry Roesli once said, are “loss-making art but profit in value management”.
Actually many contemporary composers in the Sunda region are quite potential, but very few are consistent.One of the first composers to mention is Nano S. Although the activities are more likely to be songwriters, some of his works, such as the works of “Sangkuriang” or “Warna”, give new breath in Sundanese music development. Other composers such as Suhendi Afrianto, Ismet Ruhimat were very real in their efforts in developing instrumentation in Sundanese gamelan. Dodong Kodir is quite consistent in his effort to develop organological aspects in his composition, Ade Rudiana who is successful in the development in the field of percussion music composition, Lili Suparli who holds a strong principle in processing idioms of Sundanese traditional music, and no less important composers like Dedy Satya Hadianda , Dody Satya Eka Gustdiman, Oya Yukarya, Dedy Hernawan, Ayo Sutarma whose works are quite varied and have originality in terms of their compositional aspects. (the position of the writer as a composer also has more or less the same ideology as the composers mentioned).
Of the several Sundanese composers as mentioned above, the characteristics of his work can be mapped into three categories. First is music that is “musical accompaniment”. The concept of composition in works like this is based on the creation of a melody (song / instrumental form), then other elements function to accompany the melody. Second is music that is “illustrative”. The composition concept tries to describe something from story scripts, poetry and others. Thus the musical orientation is more focused on creating an atmosphere based on the interpretation of the composer. Third is music work that is autonomous. Music works like this are usually very difficult to understand by ordinary people. Besides its non-standard shape, the grammatical aspect of the music is very different compared to traditional works. Sometimes music works like this often cause controversial things. Like the “anti tradition”, even though consciously or unconsciously, all the order of the concept comes from tradition.This kind of category is closer or more suitable to the phenomenon of Western contemporary music (European-American).
In Bali, art activities with “contemporary” ideologies have actually taken place since the beginning of the 20th century with the birth of the art of kekebyaran in North Bali. But the discourse on contemporary music began to emerge a series of Young Composers Week I which was held in Jakarta in 1979. The young composer who represented Bali at that time was I Nyoman Astita with his work entitled “Gema Eka Dasa Rudra”. In the following years the Young Composers Week was followed by other young Balinese composers such as I Wayan Rai in 1982 with his work “Trompong Beruk”, I Nyoman Windha in 1983 with his work entitled “Sangkep”, I Ketut Gede Asnawa in 1984 with his work entitled “Blank”, Ni Ketut Suryatini and I Wayan Suweca in 1987 with his work entitled “Rhythm of Life”, I Nyoman Windha in 1988,
The presence of contemporary music is starting to shake the perceptions of the academic community in ASTI and STSI (now ISI) Denpasar and also at KOKAR Bali (now SMK 3 Sukawati), because this music tends to change the perspective, taste, and aesthetic criteria that had been confined by something patterned, standardized, uniform, global, and central. The concept of contemporary music becomes very personal (individual), so that the development varies. This understanding is offered by contemporary music, so that in the works that are born there are many vocabulary techniques and the rules of tradition that have been established into a new form, seem strange, naughty, even mischievous.
In 1987, a series of Composition VI course classes, ASTI Denpasar karawitan VIII students for the first time worked on contemporary music under the title “Apang Sing Keto”. This work in the form of a musical drama uses the main instrument Gamelan Gong Gede combined with vocal processing and the use of the song “Goak Maling Taluh” as the main song. This work was later shown at the Bali Arts Festival in 1987 and received a rousing welcome from the audience. In 1988 when the Student Art Festival in Surakarta, I myself as a composer representing STSI Denpasar worked on contemporary music entitled “Belabar Agung” by using the Gong Gede gamelan. These last two works have received criticism from some musical elders,
Two years later, one piece of contemporary music with different express media was collaboratively worked on by two artists, I Wayan Dibia and Keith Terry, namely “Body Tjak”. This work is a collaborative multicultural performance art or international collaboration that combines elements of Western (American) and Eastern (Balinese-Indonesian) art and culture. “Body Tjak” was worked on by combining elements of the art of Kecak Bali with Body Music, a new type of music that uses the human body as a sound source. The work with the nuances of global art and culture, was born with two productions, Body Tjak 1990 (BT90) and Body Tjak 1999 (BT99) (Dibia, 2000: 10).Both of these works are indeed born from the artist’s desire to express his soul that has been inspired by the art dynamics of kecak and body music. Armed with their aesthetic experience,
The life and development of contemporary music that began with art events both at home and abroad eventually also entered the academic realm. Students of the ISI Denpasar karawitan major have worked on contemporary music as the final exam material. Until 2009, contemporary music cultivation still dominates the choice of the final material for karawitan majors, this has caused the productivity of contemporary music to be very numerous, the models and types are very diverse. The use of instruments is not only fixed on traditional Balinese musical instruments, but also used by other cultural music instruments, even students have explored the sounds of any objects that are considered to be able to make a sound that supports the idea of their work.
Contemporary music entitled “Gerausch” by Sang Nyoman Putra Arsa Wijaya is one example of radical exploration in contemporary Balinese music. This work had led to a small polemic in the campus academic community. Discourse developed “is this work classified as music or not, including karawitan or not?” But with a rather tough understanding of the campus academic community, finally this controversial work has led the composer to obtain a Bachelor Degree in Karawitan Composition.
- Characteristics of Contemporary Music
Contemporary music has general characteristics, including:
- Sound colors can be similar or can be various types.
- Music notation can only be understood by musicians because the notation is written with
symbol or sign.
- Having a variety of implications following the wishes of the musicians.
- Sound can come from various sources, not only from musical instruments.
- The types of scales used vary.
- This type of time is not fixed on just one time.
- Dynamic and tempo vary.